Historia del Cuerpo de Policía Nacional español I. Antecedentes.

Bienvenidos a TriviaPol. En estos artículos os vamos a ir mostrando de una forma gráfica y amena la historia policial española para que sepáis qué ha ocurrido durante todos estos años desde que se creó hasta que se constituye el Cuerpo Nacional de Policía (cuerpo actualmente en servicio en España).

INTRODUCCIÓN

El 13 de enero de 1824 se promulga por el rey Fernando VII la Real Cédula. Es considerada como el origen de lo que entendemos por una policía moderna.

POLICÍA GENERAL DEL REINO

La Real Cédula creó La Policía General del Reino. Tenía como funciones garantizar la seguridad ciudadana y el bien público. También le correspondía expedir las Cartas de Seguridad (precedente de los Documentos Nacionales de Identidad en la actualidad).

Caracterísiticas:

  • Inspiración francesa.
  • Uniformados.
  • Actuación en principales núcleos urbanos.
  • Dirigida por Superintendente general (dependía del Ministerio de Gracia y Justicia).

CUERPO DE PROTECCIÓN Y SEGURIDAD

En 1844 con Isabel II como reina de España, se crea este cuerpo que tiene carácter civil, en oposición al Cuerpo de la Guardia Civil (que se crea el mismo año).

Dependía del Ministerio de Gobernación, y entre sus principales funciones estaban evitar y prevenir delitos contra las personas y bienes.

Organización: Comisarios (vetidos de paisano) y celadores (vestidos de uniforme).

CUERPO DE ORDEN PÚBLICO y CUERPO DE VOLUNTARIOS DE LA REPÚBLICA

Una vez que Isabel II queda destronada en 1868, los cuerpos de Policía en España pasan por diferentes situaciones hasta la restauración monárquica de Alfonso XII en 1875.

En 1868 se crea el Cuerpo de Orden Público.

En 1873 se crea el Cuerpo de Voluntarios de la República.

CUERPO DE VIGILANCIA Y CUERPO DE SEGURIDAD

Una vez que Alfonso XII llega al poder, sigue con la tónica que a nivel policial había tenido Isabel II, creando incluso dos cuerpos diferentes.

  • Cuerpo de Vigilancia. 

    • Composición: inspectores y agentes actuando de paisano.
    • Misión: investigación del delito y auxilio a la justicia.
  • Cuerpo de Seguridad.

    • Composición: agentes uniformados.
    • Misión: orden público.

Para coordinar ambos cuerpos se creó la Dirección General de Seguridad que dependía del Ministerio de la Gobernación.

Muchas gracias por leer esta primera parte de los antecedentes de la Policía española. Comparte si te ha gustado.

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